Kids aren't all right
As many as one in five children ages 3 to 17 in the U.S. experiences a mental health disorder each year, says a new report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Using data from 11 ongoing federal epidemiological surveys, the CDC found in recent years, between 13 and 20 percent of U.S. children have been diagnosed with a mental health disorder each year. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) accounted for the biggest share (6.8 percent), followed by behavioral problems, anxiety and depression.
Over-diagnosing in the U.S. could be at work, but William Graf, of the Yale University School of Medicine, cites another reason for the numbers appearing high: the report's broad definition of mental health disorders. It includes tics, for example, alongside standard conditions.
"If you add it all up, one in five is not unreasonable," says Graf.
The Institute of Medicine says adult men need about 13 cups
(3 liters) per day of fluid; adult women need about 9 cups
(2.2 liters) of fluid. (You get about an additional 2 1/2 cups of fluid from foods.)
"But one size doesn't fit all," says Leslie Bonci, R.D., C.S.S.D., director of sports nutrition at the Center for Sports Medicine at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center and dietitian for the Pittsburgh Steelers. Your size and activity level affect your fluid requirements. Simply put, the larger and more active you are, the more you'll need.
The easiest thing anybody could do on a daily basis is monitor their urine color, says Dr. Douglas Casa, who studies hydration at the University of Connecticut.
"Lighter urine color - like lemonade -means you're generally well-hydrated. If it's darker, like apple juice, you're most likely dehydrated," Casa says.
Hot in the city
The Big Apple is cooking. Climate change will increase the number of temperature-related deaths within decades.
A warmer climate means more extremely hot days in summer, and fewer extremely cold days in winter, leaving people more vulnerable in summer.
Radley Horton, of Columbia University in New York, has now calculated the net effect. He matched daily temperature data for Manhattan with death rates between 1982 and 1999, then used temperature forecasts to estimate future death rates. In all his 16 models, temperature-related deaths increased almost immediately.
New York is already taking action to protect its citizens from extreme heat, as part of a broader initiative called PlaNYC, intended to protect the city from climate change. The city is planting extra trees, painting roofs white and creating "cooling centers" where people can escape the worst of the heat. Many other mid-latitude cities will need to adapt, says Horton. "Efforts under way in New York City are a valuable example."