Data on the proportion of heavy or very heavy work comes from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Requirement Survey, out of which the 22 major occupational groups were analyzed. Metropolitan-level employment and wage statistics are from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Requirement Survey. This data was then used to calculate the proportion of physically demanding jobs and the associated wage for each metropolitan area.

Metropolitan areas were grouped based on population size and ordered by the share of workers in physically demanding jobs:

  • Large metros: 1,000,000 people or more
  • Midsize metros: 350,000 – 1,000,000
  • Small metros: less than 350,000 people

For a complete list of results across all metropolitan areas, see the original report on

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